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Term Paper: Format of Citations and References

How to Cite

❶J Physiol 2 6:

How to Format an in Text Citation

General Format
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2. Basic Guidelines

When you outline your main ideas, putting them in a specific order is important. Place your strongest points at the beginning and end of your essay, with more mediocre points placed in the middle or near the end of your essay.

Main ideas can be spread out over as many paragraphs as you deem necessary. Depending on your paper rubric, class guidelines, or formatting guidelines, you may have to organize your paper in a specific way.

For example, when writing in APA format you must organize your paper by headings including the introduction, methods, results, and discussion.

These guidelines will alter the way you craft your outline and final paper. With the aforementioned tips taken into consideration, organize your entire outline. Justify main points to the left, and indent subsections and notes from your research below each. The outline should be an overview of your entire paper in bullet points. Write your body paragraphs.

Although it may seem counter-intuitive, writing your introduction first may be more difficult to accomplish than starting with the meat of your paper. Starting by writing the main points focusing on supporting your thesis allows you to slightly change and manipulate your ideas and commentary. Support every statement you make with evidence. Supply ample explanations for your research. The opposite of stating opinions without facts is stating facts with no commentary.

Although you certainly want to present plenty of evidence, make sure that your paper is uniquely your own by adding commentary in whenever possible. Avoid using many long, direct quotes. Although your paper is based on research, the point is for you to present your own ideas. Unless the quote you intend on using is absolutely necessary, try paraphrasing and analyzing it in your own words instead.

Use clear segues into adjacent points in your paper. Your essay should flow well, rather than stopping and starting in a blunt fashion. Make sure that each of your body paragraphs flows nicely into the one after it. Now that you have carefully worked through your evidence, write a conclusion that briefly summarizes your findings for the reader and provides a sense of closure. Start by briefly restating the thesis statement, then remind the reader of the points you covered over the course of the paper.

Slowly zoom out of the topic as you write, ending on a broad note by emphasizing the larger implication of your findings. First of all, the conclusion is easier to write when the evidence is still fresh in your mind. The introduction is, in many respects, the conclusion written in reverse: Avoid repeating exact phrases that you already used in the conclusion. All research essays must be documented in certain ways in order to avoid plagiarism.

Depending on the topic of your research and your field of study, you will have to use different styles of formatting. MLA, APA, and Chicago are the three most common citation formats and determine the way in-text citations or footnotes should be used, as well as the order of information in your paper.

This format requires in-text citations. APA format is used by researchers in the social sciences field, and requires in-text citations as well. Chicago formatting is used mainly for historical research papers and uses footnotes at the bottom of each page rather than in-text citations and works cited or references page.

Edit your rough draft. Although it is tempting to simply read over your essay and use the spell-check tool, editing your paper should be a bit more in-depth. Have them edit for basic grammatical and spelling errors as well as the persuasiveness of your essay and the flow and form of your paper. If you edit your own paper, wait at least three days before returning to it. Studies show that your writing is still fresh in your mind for days after finishing, and so you are more likely to skim over basic mistakes that you would otherwise catch.

If they suggest that you rewrite a section of your paper, there is probably a valid reason for their request. Take the time to edit your paper thoroughly. Create the final draft. When you have edited and re-edited your paper, formatted your work according to the subject matter, and finalized all the main points, you are ready to create the final draft. Go through your paper and fix all mistakes, rearranging information if necessary.

Adjust the font, line spacing, and margins to meet the requirements set by your professor or profession. If necessary, create an introduction page and a works cited or references page to bookend your paper. The completion of these tasks finalizes your paper! Make sure to save the paper in multiple places, for extra security and print out your final draft. Sample Environmental Research Paper.

Sample Research Paper Outline. Does making a research paper require me to invent something new or it is just about gathering information?

It can be for the both, whether you invent something new to implement or you gather some sort of data based valuable information and synthesize it. Not Helpful 11 Helpful The introduction should set out what you intend to discuss and prove in the research paper, and outline the approaches per topic or heading section. It is also nice to open the topic and lead into it in an interesting way that helps the reader to want to read on.

Not Helpful 18 Helpful To be honest there is no rule book or a set of formulas which will give you the best or better topic. Once you have a number of topics in hand you need to evaluate as to which topic interests you and your audience more. Not Helpful 10 Helpful See Make a Questionnaire for the method needed. Not Helpful 15 Helpful You can publish a research paper through established journals or you can use open source online publishing sites, such as SSRN or Researchgate.

If your research paper is long enough, you could also publish it as a small book or an ebook, and disseminate it via book sales sites and stores. Not Helpful 16 Helpful If you are numbering the pages, then yes, the second and third pages should be numbered. Yes, but it is best to write a research paper without contractions. If you must use them, make sure they are spelled correctly and used in the right places.

Not Helpful 9 Helpful I believe that the questionnaires are attached in the appendix section of the paper with the survey forms, raw data, documentations and other tables. Not Helpful 3 Helpful Long enough to strongly answer your thesis.

If you can cover it in 10 pages wonderful. If you need to utilize 50 pages that is great too. If you are forcing a specific number of pages than your work may come off as too repetitive or poorly written. You don't want to over exhaust the topics or include unless information just to get a page count.

Not Helpful 12 Helpful How can I write correct English words for other languages such as Thai? There should be a standardized way of writing Thai words in English. If there is more than one convention, you can choose one and state which one you're going to use in the preface to your paper. Not Helpful 7 Helpful 9. Does doing research need to have a site visit or questionnaire? Can i just refer to the rules or classification society?

Answer this question Flag as Can I write a paper based on a hypothetical condition? The condition may never come true but it is interesting. My research paper is on a specific animal species and I need to answer given areas.

Should I use a headline above the paragraphs when I address these? How is essay writing used in the academic setting? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Quick Summary To write a research paper, start by researching your topic at the library, online, or using an academic database.

Did this summary help you? Tips Be sure to get your assignments done on time. The reference page is a crucial element of your research paper; it helps you prevent plagiarism, and it proves you did your research.

By providing publication information about the sources that helped you write your paper, the reference page both grants proper credit to other researchers and demonstrates your own scholarly diligence, thereby inducting you into the world of academia. Of course, writing a thorough, properly formatted reference page also helps you earn a good grade.

Write "References" at the top of the page, centered. If you are following a specific formatting style, such as APA or MLA, then write this title in normal textuse the same font, size and format as the rest of the paper. If your teacher hasn't required that you use a certain style, then you can bold the title or write it in slightly larger letters.

Add an entry for each source used in your paper. This means any book, article, website, person, pamphlet, television broadcast, movie, picture or any other resource that you discussed or quoted or that provided information you included in your essay. Additionally, as a general rule, only provide reference entries for sources that were specifically cited or mentioned in your paper.

Provide thorough information about each source. Begin with the name of the reference's author. Also includeat minimumthe source's title, date of publication and publisher. If the source is published in a periodical, write the volume and issue numbers as well as the name of the magazine or journal. If the source is published online, you may want to provide the URL.

If the source is a book, specify where the publisher is located.

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The reference page is a crucial element of your research paper; it helps you prevent plagiarism, and it proves you did your research.

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Begin the list on a new page. The list contains the same running head as the main text. The page numbering in the running head continues uninterrupted throughout. For example, if the text of your research paper (including any endnotes) ends on page 10, the works-cited list begins on page Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References. Title Page The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation.

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Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. 4. Your List of References. Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References". This section goes at the end of your paper. Sample Reference Page Following is a sample reference page constructed according to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.