The acid takes important minerals away from the leaves and the soil. Without these minerals, trees and plants cannot grow properly. Damaged trees lose their leaves, have stunted growth and damaged bark.
This makes it easier for fungi and insects to attack the tree, and as a result the tree may die. Acid rain not only damages soil but can also affect the trees directly. Pollutants can block or damage the little pores on the leaves through which the plant takes in the air it needs to survive.
High altitude forests are especially vulnerable as they are often surrounded by clouds and fog which are more acidic than rain. Other plants can also be damaged by acid rain, but the effect on food crops is minimized by the application of lime and fertilizers to replace lost nutrients.
In cultivated areas, limestone may also be added to increase the ability of the soil to keep the pH stable, but this tactic is largely unusable in the case of wilderness lands. When calcium is leached from the needles of red spruce, these trees become less cold tolerant and exhibit winter injury and even death. Acid rain does not directly affect human health. The acid in the rainwater is too dilute to have direct adverse effects. However, the particulates responsible for acid rain sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides do have an adverse effect.
Increased amounts of fine particulate matter in the air do contribute to heart and lung problems including asthma and bronchitis. Acid rain can also damage buildings and historic monuments and statues, especially those made of rocks, such as limestone and marble that contain large amounts of calcium carbonate.
When sulphur pollutants fall on to buildings made from limestone and sandstone they react with minerals in the stone to form a powdery substance that can be washed away by rain. Acids in the rain react with the calcium compounds in the stones to create gypsum, which then flakes off. The effects of this are commonly seen on old gravestones, where acid rain can cause the inscriptions to become completely illegible. Acid rain also increases the corrosion rate of metals, in particular iron, steel, copper and bronze.
Acid rain can also damage stained glass windows in churches, railway lines and steel bridges. The acid rain slowly eats away them all. Building materials crumble away, metals are corroded.
These spray a mixture of water and limestone into the polluting gases, recapturing the sulphur. A coating of protective layer of inert polymer should be given in the interior of water pipes for drinking water. In catalytic converters, the gases are passed over metal coated beads that convert harmful chemicals into less harmful ones. You must be logged in to post a comment. Sources and Consequences of Global Warming. Two World Views on Environmental Ethics. What makes these figures particularly distributing is that nitrogen oxide emissions have tripled in the last thirty years.
Action by one government is not enough. In order for things to be done we need to find a way to work together on this for at least a reduction in the contaminates contributing to acid rain. Although there are right steps in the right directions but the government should be cracking down on factories not using the best filtering systems when incinerating or if the factory is giving off any other dangerous fumes.
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This is not only low pH value that takes a heavy toll of fauna and flora. In acid lakes there are increased concentrations of aluminium in ion form, which is highly toxic to many organisms.
The level of other heavy metals also rises such as cadmium, zinc, and lead. Those heavy metals including aluminium flow into lakes from the acidified soils of the surroundings.
The relationship of prey and predators will also change, for instance certain insects on which they usually prey begin to thrive when their predators are disappeared Thunberg, Acidification process takes place naturally in the soil.
The plant releases hydrogen ions as it uptake nutrients. Though the growth itself is acidifying, there is no net acidification where growth and decay are about equal. However, the cycle is broken by harvesting, the acidifying process will take over. Soil acidification may have biological effects in the respects through lowering of the pH value, an increase in the levels of aluminium and other toxic compounds and a loss of plant nutrients due to increased leaching, consequently may lower drainage water pH Thunberg, Forestry practices can cause the soil and water to become acidified in several ways.
Forest growth change drainage water pathways to stream, and increase stream water acidity. Extensive clear cutting can also accelerate the acidification of surface water.
Applying acidifying fertilizer also helps to acidify soil and water Thunberg, Twelve years studies of acidification-induced chemical changes in soils of Norway spruce and Scot pine in southern Sweden reveals that pH in mineral soil decreased on average 0. In addition, atmospheric pollution directly damages forest itself. Since the early s, West Germany has experienced a rapid and widespread decline in the health of its forest trees; especially sensitive species were affected by exposure to low levels of pollutants Ling et al, Most of the precipitation sinks to some extent into the ground.
The more permeable the soil, the more water dribbles down. Normally acid rain will become less acid as it penetrates through the ground. However, where the soil becomes acidified and has less ability to neutralize, the effect will be decrease until it finally ceases.
It is unlikely that acid groundwater will be harmful to human health, however toxic heavy metals, such as aluminium and cadmium may appear at elevated level where highly acidic.
These metals are harmful for human health Thunberg, Solutions to the problems of acidification fall into two groups, which are cure and prevention. Remedial measures can be applied where the problems actually arise i. Preventive measures can be applied at source i. The latter are expensive and the least acceptable to industry, however they are in fact more effective, more sustainable, and more immediately required Park, Causal treatment by reducing aciditying emissions is the primary goal in a long-term as preventive measures, however outcomes from this approach are still uncertain and recovery may be slow.
Indicative treatment, involving the addition of neutralizing agent such as powdered limestone to affected environment is the only realistic remedy in the short-term, and has become a widespread practice in Europe Thunberg, Remedial action should be taken after the problems happen. This requires not simply the elimination of symptoms of damage i. Some materials in nature have ability to buffer, or neutralize, or offset acid input.
Lime and limestone are the most accepted of a range of chemicals that can be used to buffer acidic materials. Lime has been added normally by spraying from helicopter to catchments, soils and forests to alleviate damage and improve conditions for environment Park, With regard to the lakes and streams, this raises pH value of the water and decrease in the levels of heavy metals. After the liming many species quickly return to their former habitat Thunberg, This approach has been most widely investigated in Sweden Park, This measure had been made in UK as well.
This monitoring reveals that chemistry in treated streams changed significantly as mean annual pH increased from The abundance of Acid-sensive taxa in limed streams increased after treatment. Liming has also been used as a means of restoring acidified soils.
This improves the productivity of croplands and forests.
Acid rain could also effect on the air which can makes the acid rain pollution. Most of the breathing and lung problems in children and adults who have asthma were linked to acid air pollution. There are many health problems that occur in the U.S. and Canada each year because of this problem.
Essay on Acid Rain – Causes and Effects Free words essay on Acid Rain – Causes and Effects for school and college students. Acid rain is a crude manifestation of the scourge of atmospheric pollution in form of precipitation that consists of high levels of nitric and sulphuric acid.
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are the gases that form the acid rain. When these gases mix with moisture it can make rain, snow, hail, or even fog. The scientific term for acid rain is acid deposition which means when the acid /5(3). ADVERTISEMENTS: Essay on Acid Rain: Definition, Causes, Adverse Effects and Control! The term ‘Acid Rain’ was first used by Robert A. Smith in from his studies of air in Manchester, England. The widespread occurrence of acid rain was recognized only in .
- The Effects of Acid Rain Acid rain looks, feels, and tastes just like clean rain, but there is a difference that is found on the pH scale. Acid rain is formed by one of three processes. In some cases hydrochloric acid can be directly let off into the atmosphere. Well Crafted Acid Rain Essay. Acid rain is the term assigned to the acidic particulars present in the rain water. The cause is largely human triggered. The ever increasing pollution that obviously is the bane of the industrialization has accelerated the chances of occurring of acid rain.