Save America's Forests What is ironic about this ad? Is irony an effective way to make an argument? Elements of argument When writing or analyzing arguments, we begin by examining how the argument appeals to the reader.
When writing argumentative essays and papers, we rely heavily upon the logical appeal to make our case. The evidence utilized in the logical appeal is usually research-based evidence: This is also why we write in third person. The key to using the emotional appeal successfully in papers is to provide an opportunity for an emotional response and not to try and orchestrate an emotional response. An example of the wrong use of an emotional appeal are infomercials for organizations like Care.
While there is no doubt their work and message is important, they try to manipulate the audience with the use of emotional music, manipulative photographs, with an emotional narrative running beneath the music and images. While this may be okay for non-profit organizations, it does not work in college papers. Do not try to manipulate your audience this way.
Also, do not try to use emotionally charged language. Stay in third person and avoid sounding biased, accusatory or self-righteous. As a writer, the people you are trying to persuade are the people who either disagree with you or are not sure. By sounding accusatory or self-righteous, you will put the opposition on the defensive, and you have already lost your argument. The proper use of emotions is through narrative case studies. Case studies provide the opportunity to appeal to readers' emotions.
The key is not to tell the readers what to feel or to try and manipulate the readers to feel a specific emotion. Readers can become emotionally involved with the topic or not. It is up to them. This works well for social issues like hunger and homelessness, bullying, child abuse, or illegal immigration. The blending of specific case studies with empirical evidence creates a deeply meaningful approach to argument. If I am talking about homeless children in America, by providing the statistics on the large number of children effected by this issue along with stories of the struggles of specific children, this drives the point home.
We have a name and face to go with those numbers making the argument very human. By using an unbiased tone and unbiased language, we project an image of trustworthiness and credibility. That is also why we use credible sources. We, as writers of college papers, do not have any credibility yet with our audience. By using authoritative, reliable sources, we borrow their credibility to help persuade readers to adopt our point of view. We are effectively saying, it is not just me that thinks this way.
Here is a testimonial from Dr. So and So and his research that supports it. The research, surveys or clinical studies provides the evidence that supports the argument. Looking back at the ads above, what types of appeals did those ads use? What audience does the writer have in mind? Who is the target audience the writer is trying to persuade? As a writer, your audience is the first consideration. This determines the language you will use, the sources you will cite, and the approach you will take.
For example, if I were writing an anti-abortion paper, I would address a panel of scientists much differently than a church congregation. Some of my sources would change, and my language use would probably change. For scientists, I would sound more clinical. For the church congregation, I would sound more emotional. My evidence would change, too. For scientists, I would use clinical evidence.
For a church congregation. I would use sacred text. Once again, some of my sources would change and my approach would be different. Why are you writing it?
What are you trying to prove? The purpose is the thesis statement. It cannot be just to fulfill a requirement. It is imperative that your position is clear. What exactly are you arguing? It should be very apparent which side you are on and why. Provide the reasoning behind your position. This is considered weak and childish.
Here is an example from a student paper. Although the American flag is worthy of great esteem, the government cannot take away the right to desecrate the flag without taking away all that it stands for—freedom. What exactly is being argued in the paper?
What is included or not included? As a writer, it is your job to set parameters around your argument. Be sure to clearly explain the main argument of the paper. For example, if I were writing an anti-abortion paper, I might set the parameters around third trimester.
This defines exactly what will be included and what will not be included. What kinds of evidence are utilized in the paper? Is the evidence sound?
Does it come from authoritative sources? Be sure to use reliable sources. Do not just Google the topic and grab the random information that may pop up. Use journal articles when possible because they are usually written by authorities in a specific field. They will provide multiple sources for their information because they must cite their sources.
When using Internet sources, pay attention to the URL. What is the domain name? How does this influence the information being provided? Who is the author? What is the author's background? A part of what makes your argument compelling is the variety of sources that you use and the credibility of those sources.
You cannot win an argument with random information. Do not rely heavily upon a single source to carry your paper. A variety of sources shows that you have done your diligence as a writer and increases your credibility.
Does the author anticipate the opposition's main arguments? Is the author prepared with counterarguments and compelling evidence that can persuade the opposition to adopt a different view? Refutation or rebuttal is incredibly important to your argument. You cannot write a one-sided argument. You must first briefly identify an opposition's point. Then immediately address it with counterarguments and compelling evidence. As stated earlier, it is the opposition that you are trying to convince. So, how well you handle this section of your paper will determine its effectiveness as an argument.
What is the author's attitude toward the topic? It is hostile, sarcastic, irate, or reasonable? Academic Assignment Writing an Essay. Writing a Research Paper. Writing Guides for Students Writing a Memoir 2. Creative Writing Guides Writing a Song 3. Writing a Letter Writing an Evaluation Letter 3.
Steps for Writing a First Draft of an Essay Take a closer look at your assignment and the topic if it was given to you by your instructor. Revise your outline as well. This is needed for your clearer understanding of the tasks you must accomplish within the draft, and to make sure you meet the requirements of the assignment.
Sketch out the introduction of your essay. Based on your outline, start transferring your ideas to paper. The main task here is to give them the initial form and set a general direction for their further development, and not to write a full paper. Chalk out the summarizing paragraph of your essay. It should not contain any new ideas, but briefly reintroduce those from the main body, and restate your thesis statement.
Read through the draft to see if you have included the information you wanted to, but without making any further corrections, since this is a task for the second and final drafts. Key Points to Consider While an outline is needed to decide on what to write, the first draft is more about answering a question: When you start writing your thoughts down, it may happen that one idea or concept sparks new connections, memories, or associations.
Making notes for yourself in the margins or even in the middle of the text is a useful practice. This can save you time and keep you focused on the essence of your essay without being distracted by secondary details.
For example, such notes could look like this: Time away will allow you to have a fresh look at your draft when you decide to revise it. Indeed, if your first draft is lengthy—which is actually a rough sketch—imagine how long your paper will become if you expand on each idea chalked out and fill it with factual data.
Do reread the draft several times and return to the requirements of your assignment and topic if you feel you are getting stalled. Do leave empty space in the text when writing.
It may happen that you come across certain details that are necessary for your essay, but can be left out at the moment. To avoid being distracted by thoughts that are not connected with your focus, leave blank space in their place—you will be able to return to them later.
Do set a time limit for yourself.
The writing process begins with a topic and concludes with a polished essay. One of the crucial stages in the middle is the rough draft. This.
Five paragraph essay- Rough Draft Name_____ 4 Time to type! Check off each step as you complete it. 1. Log on to the computer.
A rough draft is "a late stage in the writing process". 1 It assumes that you have adequate information and understanding, are near or at the end of gathering research, and have completed an exercise in prewriting. Writing the Rough Draft. You’ve already done a lot of the hard work. You have clarified your topic and collected as many ideas as you can. according to the date or the draft (Essay_draft1, Essay_draft2, etc.). That way, if you deleted something you want to use later, you can go back to an old draft to find it. Dig Deeper.
You only have one chance to impress the admissions officers, so trust Rough Draft Essays with this critical task. BRAINSTORM WITH ME We will hash out ideas for your essay and come up with a creative topic for you to write about. A first draft is a rough sketch of your future piece of writing. Sometimes your first draft may become the final one due to it being rather satisfactory, but in most cases, it requires further work. A first draft is a way to elaborate on the main points of your essay stated in your outline, giving them a sample form.