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Labelling theory is constituted essentially by two propositions. The first is that deviant behaviour is to be seen not simply as the violation of a norm, but as any behaviour which is successfully defined or labelled as deviant. The deviance does not inhere in the act itself but in the response of others to that act. In other words, the deviance is said to be in the eye of the beholder. The second proposition claims that labelling produces or amplifies deviance. The deviant's response to societal reaction leads to secondary deviation by which the deviant comes to accept a self-image or self-definition as someone who is permanently locked within a deviant role.

Furthermore, the distinctiveness of the approach is that it draws attention to deviance as the outcome of social imputations and the exercise of social control. Labelling theory is very complex, making it quite different than other theories. Instead of looking at why some social groups commit more crime, labelling theory asks why some people committing some action come to be defined as deviant, while others do not.

Labelling theory is also interested in the effect of labelling individuals. As well, labelling theorists note that most people commit crimes at some time in their lives but not everyone becomes defined as deviant or criminal. How does this process of defining a person as deviant work? Look at a situation where a policeman holds stereotypes about typical criminals. They use these stereotypes to interpret the behaviour of suspected deviants.

In other words, the closer a person comes to the stereotype held by the police, the more likely they are to be arrested, charged, and convicted of the crime. Furthermore, once someone has been successfully labelled or stigmatized as criminal or deviant, the label attached may become the dominant label.

Role of Deviance in Societies. Role of Deviance in Societies Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society Deviance pp.

Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility Deviance pp. Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement Deviance pp. Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant Deviance pp. It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition Deviance pp.

Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…… [Read More].

Field Experiment on the Interactive Perspective of Deviance. Behavior Experiment The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.

The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned.

However, the…… [Read More]. Corporate Deviance in Their Seminal. Sutherland was quite critical of why some crimes were defined as deviant, while society appears more tolerant of other transgressions.

For example, individual theft is seen as causing great harm, while the harm caused by illegal pollution and the dissemination of hazardous waste are hardly recognized. In , for example, the Carnival Company, a Florida-based cruise company which operates 40 ships, was convicted of falsifying its oil record books.

The company under-reported the levels of oil in the bilge water it discharged. The higher levels of oil threatened ocean life. Though Carnival was guilty of wrongdoing, few members of the general public at the time would go so far as to define Carnival's actions as criminally deviant. In summary, both functionalist and social labeling theories help to explain how corporate deviance are both defined and addressed in…… [Read More].

Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance in Looking. Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance In looking at the four functions of deviance in the context of examples. Namely rock and roll music and marijuana smoking, etc. In the s and s compared to today. The first function according to Durkheim is that deviance gives affirmation to validate the values and cultural norms that guide behavior in society Macionis, In America a guiding principle of society has always been morality.

Since the country was founded on a primary belief in Godly "In God we Trust" principles of right and wrong. Along with the freedoms that comes with allowing people of all religions to determine their own destinies. With this freedom comes the realization that there will be differences in opinion about behavior and the type of attitudes that accompany a moral premise.

If there is a virtue of what is 'acceptable' or good in society there has to be…… [Read More]. Crime and Deviance Crime Is.

The changing nature of crime should make criminology, in terms of criminal laws, flexible and up-to-date. The law must have a regular review to ensure that the society is governed by proper and accurate directives to guarantee peace and equality among the people.

Moreover, flexibility is important to ensure that right punishment is rendered to every crime. Another impact that criminology holds because of the changing nature of crime is the goal and objective of assessing their tools and technology that fight against crime.

Unlike some decades ago, guns and written laws are not the only tools these days that can prevent crimes and put the criminals in bars.

Because of the diverse high technology that emerges, it is important that criminology has the right and advance instruments that can enhance their purpose of serving and ensuring peace to society. Ethics - Deviance "Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by society and groups within it.

The unique life-or-death situation of the Andes Mountain plane crash survivors shows how a group can be compelled to redefine deviant behavior to make it acceptable and even holy. By examining this group's situation, Henslin is able to define a number of lessons about social reality. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by examining a unique but disturbing situation. This situation, in which some humans survived a plane crash in the Andes Mountains, were stranded in the Mountains for more than 2 months and were literally starving to death with no food source except human corpses, gave Henslin a unique opportunity…… [Read More].

Gun Control as a Social. Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues.

Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.

The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials. Deviance and Social Control. Rights and Social Inclusion Homeless. Often children must withhold information from people who could help them as public awareness of their homelessness would likely end in separation from loved ones as for children a greater number of programs exist to help them independently than collectively with their parents.

Homeless youth are also a significant social issue and their numbers are hard to even estimate, though there are clear indications that the numbers are growing.

Mental Health and Social Inequalities. Inequalities in Mental Health Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society.

The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. Gabbidon, Cole, The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself.

This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…… [Read More]. Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priest. Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priests Many psychologists have suggested that clergy who take a vow of celibacy are more likely to engage in sexual deviance than clergy who are allowed to marry.

Many others argue that this is completely untrue. This research paper aims to examine these points-of-view to either prove or disprove the relationship between celibacy and sexual deviances by priests.

In today's society, the Catholic Church is confronted with two important issues regarding sexuality. The first is the scandal of sexual abuse of children by priests, which is a highly publicized issue that it damaging the reputation of the Catholic Church in the United States.

The second is the question of whether priest should take a vow of celibacy and remain unmarried. In order to fully address this hypothesis, it is important to address these questions but not regard them as two aspects of one problem. Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal.

Crime and Deviance Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies.

They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented.

This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper. Theories of Crime and Deviance Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…… [Read More].

Contrast of Occupational and Organizational Deviance. Furthermore, it will address the areas of organizational and occupational deviance. Occupational and Organizational Deviance The definition for occupational or workplace deviance given by Bennett and obinson is: The workplace represents a forum in which several different behaviors can be seen, with each of them having different consequences to organizational members and the overall organization.

Such behaviors normally fall within organizational norms' constructs Matthew, et. Company norms are defined as a collection of expected principles, behaviors, languages, and postulations, which enable its operations to progress at the proper pace.

Any action is considered an occupational deviance if important organizational rules are violated by it. Some examples of occupational deviance include: Workplace Deviance Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors Defining Counterproductive and Productive Work Behavior Counterproductive work behavior CWB is defined by an employee's actions causing harm to either a coworker or their employer reviewed by Krischer, Penney, and Hunter, The forms of CWB can vary considerably, from arguing with or ignoring coworkers, damaging equipment to sabotage the work of others, and reducing the amount of time spent at work.

Krischer, Penney, and Hunter argue that organizational psychology research has focused almost exclusively on an employee's affective response to negative events, to the exclusion of internal or instrumental motivations. Instrumental motivations for engaging in CWB could arise from an employee's attempts to cope…… [Read More]. Merton Social Structure and Anomie. Thus creative accounting becomes a way to justify the means -- because showing a profit will generate more profit, and gain the firm social esteem and more investors, being unethical in the supposedly 'short run' seems acceptable in the eyes of the firm's employees.

People go along with it because it is accepted in the culture of the firm. All of these are examples of how the social structure of a society, in this case, American society, sets certain norms, such as the norm of success.

It creates institutional norms, like the ideal that capitalist firms that must quickly show a profit. Advertisements convey the message that expensive material possessions are equated with success. Subcultures within the greater social structure endorse aberrant behavior, however, and the wider the gulf between the common cultural aspirations and available methods of achieving these aspirations, the more likely aberrant, nonconformist behavior will arise.

Hirschi's Social Bond Theory Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds Smangs, These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment.

Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts.

People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…… [Read More]. Abused children develop antisocial behavior that persists through three continuous generations. Such behavior grows out of angry, aggressive parenting and an overall negative home environment, perpetuated by sibling collusion, economic and biological factors.

These children exhibit this in preschool by committing at least one antisocial behavior each day in class. As dysfunctional adolescents, their romantic lives and eventual marriages also fail.

African-American children suffer from the affliction than Caucasian children. The current level of knowledge and efforts requires effective and efficient mechanisms at home, in school and the community in the crucial formative childhood years. Understanding the Connection between Child Abuse and the Development of Antisocial Behavior Abused children eventually become problem adults who are a burden to society.

Stable evidence has long recognized and documented the negative effects…… [Read More]. Bastards of the Party and.

Since post-Industrial evolution social values tended to focus so much more on acquisition and less on contributing to society through work, individuals experiencing psychosocial strains from the lack of available opportunities for legitimate work often sought to acquire the same outward social status through deviant and criminal means Schmalleger, The documentary traced the evolution of organized neighborhood protection and political rights organizations in vast criminal enterprises after the discovery of the economic profit potential associated with selling illicit narcotics.

In Los Angeles, a parasitic relationship developed wherein the Los Angeles Police Department LAPD extracted protection money from the gangs while simultaneously increasing their official budget to upgrade their facilities and equipment on the basis of the increasing firepower and…… [Read More]. Social influences encompass the changes that occur in attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that often result from interpersonal interactions.

Conformity and obedience are key concepts that aid in explaining social influences. Concisely, conformity refers to the influence that the masses or the majority have over an individual Collins, On the other hand, obedience is influence exerted by the state or an authority over its subjects.

This essay will endeavor to compare and contrast these two forms of social influences and draw conclusions that will candidly show the difference between conformity and obedience. Conformity and obedience bear some semblance with each other in the fact that they can both persuade, or inspire an individual to change one's behavior, actions and thoughts, as regards a specific situation.

Another semblance between conformity and obedience lies in their ability…… [Read More]. In those cases, "deviance" from socially accepted values would be considered a positive response rather than "delinquency" in an objective sense.

Alternate ideas, such as differential association formulated by Sutherland Pfohl , in particular, demonstrate that even in contemporary American society, social values are extremely subjective and that specific populations - most notably, incarcerated prisoners - form their own societal norms and shared values that contradict those of larger society and that those mores are as powerful and likely to shape future behavior among adolescents exposed to them for long periods Scmalleger Similarly, modern criminologists Pinizzotto, et al.

Furthermore, many Baby Boomers of the so-called hippie generation also would seem to contradict Hirschi's theory in that, especially when viewed retrospectively, behavior that was considered "deviant" or "delinquent"…… [Read More]. John ommel Case Study Why would John be considered a deviant?

What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study? Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking.

The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict. Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. In its current form in the U. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element.

Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier. Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet Vol. Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

Delinquency Theories Edwin Sutherland Just as parole programs typically restrict contact between offenders, a Differential Association-oriented delinquency prevention program would endeavor to prohibit the formation of deviant groups and criminally-prone gangs. The specific mechanisms for intervention would include sentencing juvenile offenders to mandatory suspension of social relationships deemed capable of precipitating delinquent or criminal conduct in lieu of harsher penalties.

Another mechanism might be the strict enforcement of particular municipal codes, such as ordinances prohibiting the public assembly of groups of individuals or the promulgation of such legislation for that purpose where existing legislation is lacking in that regard.

Likewise, the strict enforcement of other commonly overlooked activities technically prohibited by ordinance, such as the timely vacating of parks promptly at closing time, loitering on private commercial property adjacent to convenience stores, and truancy statutes would all be incorporated into a Differential Association-oriented approach to delinquency prevention. More generally, that concept of delinquency prevention…… [Read More].

Sociology - Crime Theories Making. Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology. However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling. Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.

Criminology Theories and Their Impact. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse. The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence.

If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…… [Read More]. Since everyone has dreamed of a better world, it is fair to say that Humanity has a common dream.

While no two humans are exactly the same, we are all of one race, the human race, and we all share the experience of life in an essentially identical carbon-based life-form structure.

We all work for continuing survival while in this structure, and hope for a happy, safe, and good life for ourselves and for our loved ones. Therefore, everyone has a common desire for the best life attainable. Reports of the corporate earnings of executives…… [Read More]. Rosa Lee of All the. Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity.

Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate.

Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…… [Read More]. Causes of Crime - Categories. Conversely, many individuals with comparatively fewer social benefits and apparent opportunities manage to overcome their disadvantages and achieve economic, educational, and vocational success and satisfaction. However, criminal law is neither particularly well designed nor equipped to address the disparate influences on individuals with respect to the specific factors related to criminal conduct and the relative social advantages and disadvantages available to individuals.

By definition, criminal law primarily serves three principal functions already described ; except for the deterrence component, it is not specifically intended to address the causal factors underlying criminal conduct Schmalleger, Admittedly, therefore, criminal law essentially ignores the root causes of the conduct it is intended to redress, notwithstanding the valuable role it plays with regard to doing so, after the fact. The responsibility of addressing the myriad social factors and societal inequities that contribute to the actual causes underlying criminal conduct do not fall within the purview…… [Read More].

Decline of the Institution of. Domestic Violence at the Root This presents as the most important issue for family dissolution or divorce among low-income families Haskins et al. Research conducted by Kathrun Edin and her team found that many poor mothers are willing to bear children even for men they consider unsuitable for marriage.

Often, it is because these women believe they are in love with these men and that having children may improve these men's attitude in the long-term. Quarrels often grow out of chronic infidelity, physical abuse, alcoholism and drug addiction, criminal activity and imprisonment. Research showed that these men harbor similar doubts about their women Haskins et al.

Some of the problems in these situations and relationships may be managed by quality marriage education when combined with employment, mental health and other support services…… [Read More].

Stress and Depression Among Adolescents. Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology Grover, et al. The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent.

The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" Grover, p. The National Institute of Mental Health NIMH suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…… [Read More].

Criminal Justice - Gender and. In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton.

Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society Macionis More specifically, Agnew suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: Sociological Theories of Mental Illness.

With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. With this base firmly established I will move on from there to look specifically at the area of crime and the young, isolating points of reference between the theory and the official statistics and drawing inferences from this. I will then move on to look at the area of postmodern social theory as exemplified in the work of, among others Michel Foucault, and how such notions of privileging and minor narratives can be used to challenge criminal stereotypes and provide a sound foundation for future practice.

First of all, what is the theory of deviancy? It is not enough, as most commentators point out Haralambos, ; Giddens, ; Downes and Rock, etc. As Lefton, Skipper and McCaghy state the sociology of deviance , like many definitions in the social sciences, can best be thought of as a series of linked practices that are generally considered as constituting a partially homogenous discipline:. It is obvious from this statement that not only are definitions of sociology of deviance problematic but so too are definitions of deviance itself.

A working definition of deviance as Haralambos suggests should involve some idea of relativity; with the current moral and ethical trends and mores taken as a benchmark for comparison:.

Deviance can only be defined in relation to a particular standard and no standards are fixed or absolute. As such what is regarded as deviant varies from time to time and place to place. In many ways then, deviance and its study must be looked at within the context of the country and the historical era that produced it.

This does not however negate its importance as an opinion forming notion within society because, as we shall see, in many ways those who are excluded are equally as important, if not more so, as those that exclude. One of the earliest perspectives of deviance and its causes was the notion of criminal typing as seen in the work of Cesare Lombroso and William Ferrero , For Lombroso and Ferrero, the criminal displayed psychical differences from the law-abiding. The deviant could be judged and, presumably the authorities pre-warned, through the isolating of certain physical features such as an asymmetrical face or unusual facial features.

A article by the BBC, for example, suggests that steps have been made to try and isolate a gene that causes delinquency and anti-social behavior.

The outcomes of such research, commentators have suggested, could be the use of drugs in the prevention of crime and deviance.

Of course, most of the theories concerning crime and deviance rely more on sociology than psychology or genetics. The use of psychobiology in this area may seem reasonable, it may even offer attractive easy answers like the use of crime-curbing drugs but, ultimately the problem is more likely to reside in the complexity of the interface between the individual and the society.

Even that most biological of thinkers Hans Eysenck acquiesces to the importance of context and culture in this area:. What the figures have demonstrated is that heredity is a very strong predisposing factor as far as committing crimes is concerned. But the actual way in which the crime is carried out, and whether or not the culprit is found and punished—these are obviously subject to the changing vicissitudes of everyday life.

One of the earliest sociological expositions of deviance was the functionalist view of Emile Durkheim. Commensurate with his over all schema of sociological thought, Durkheim stressed not only the inevitability but also the function of crime in a social context.

Firstly, he asserted, the universality of deviance as a subject - the fact that every society has a notion of deviance even though this may change from society to society points to the fact that it has an important role to play in the formation of societies.

He says in his The Rules of Sociological Method As long as the levels of deviance do not become unstable and threaten the social order, thought Durkheim, notions like crime and delinquency are important social functions; providing social cohesion and homogeneity. The concept of breaking the law, in other words must always be in a dialectical relationship to the up holding of the law but the latter must always prevail in order to maintain the status quo.

For Durkheim, also, deviance can be seen as a prefiguring of future actions or morality Thompson, The consensus of the society can be broken by individuals that may seem deviant at the time but whose views, eventually, come to represent the general consensus. In both of these examples we see images of individuals or at least small groups who reverse the current trends in society but whose notions eventually are adopted.


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Deviance is a term used by society to define behaviors that differ from the everyday social norm, this means that majority of people in a society. In the essay I will discuss the notion of deviance and will demonstrate that people do not become deviants on the strength of their behaviour alone, but by the sanctions of a society whose norms that the offender has deemed to have violated.

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In this essay we are concerned with social deviance, not physiological deviations from the expected norm. In general, any behavior that does not conform to social norms is deviance; that is behavior that violates significant social norms and is disapproved of by a large number of people as a result. Sociology Research Paper on Deviance Posted on October 29, by EssayShark The approval of a certain behaviors depends on the societal culture, which .