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❶Steps of the scientific method are shaped like an hourglass - starting from general questions, narrowing down to focus on one specific aspect , and designing research where we can observe and analyze this aspect. This page was last edited on 10 August , at

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It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon. It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do.

Time, money, feasibility, ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research. Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion.

Some measurements might not reflect the real world, because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should. To test a hypothesis , quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right.

The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis. Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings. The t-test also called the Student's T-Test is one of many statistical significance tests, which compares two supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or not.

The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a hypothesis is supported or not. Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of the research process, not just because the researcher got the expected result.

It has to be based on the validity and reliability of the measurement, how good the measurement was to reflect the real world and what more could have affected the results. Anyone should be able to check the observation and logic, to see if they also reach the same conclusions.

Errors of the observations may stem from measurement-problems, misinterpretations, unlikely random events etc. A common error is to think that correlation implies a causal relationship. This is not necessarily true. Generalization is to which extent the research and the conclusions of the research apply to the real world. It is not always so that good research will reflect the real world, since we can only measure a small portion of the population at a time.

Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem, while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are. A definition of reliability may be "Yielding the same or compatible results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials" the free dictionary. Research methodology lacking reliability cannot be trusted. Replication studies are a way to test reliability. Both validity and reliability are important aspects of the research methodology to get better explanations of the world.

Logically, there are two types of errors when drawing conclusions in research:. Type 1 error is when we accept the research hypothesis when the null hypothesis is in fact correct. Type 2 error is when we reject the research hypothesis even if the null hypothesis is wrong. A strong Concept Paper is based on a wide-range literature review that is condensed into a summary of key points. Goal Statement — provides a broad or abstract intention, including the research goals and objectives.

Research Questions — provides a preliminary view of the questions the student will investigate. Questions are based on theory, past research, experience, and need. These questions will direct the research methodology; their inclusion in the Concept Paper links the research problem with the methodology.

For some, composing the research questions may be the most difficult part of the research project, or possibly the most difficult aspect of writing the Concept Paper. The questions will direct everything that will be done; therefore, it is important that they are accurate and focused to the main research problem.

These research questions will specifically direct the research and the type of analyses conducted, as such their compatibility is essential. The goals and objects identified in previous sections of the Concept Paper should relate to the research methods described in this section.

For the Concept Paper, the methodology is simplified or summarized, serving as a general outline of the methods that will be employed. Timeline — provides a range of time for completion of the project, highlighting key elements for each stage of the project.

This element is unique to the Concept Paper and provides the student structure for managing sections of the project within a realistic time frame. References — provides references to the material cited in the literature review and elsewhere in the Concept Paper. American Psychological Association Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm , theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.

A methodology does not set out to provide solutions—it is therefore, not the same as a method. Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or [best practice]s can be applied to a specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result.

The methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is to be undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it.

These methods , described in the methodology, define the means or modes of data collection or, sometimes, how a specific result is to be calculated. When proper to a study of methodology, such processes constitute a constructive generic framework , and may therefore be broken down into sub-processes, combined, or their sequence changed.

A paradigm is similar to a methodology in that it is also a constructive framework. In theoretical work, the development of paradigms satisfies most or all of the criteria for methodology. Any description of a means of calculation of a specific result is always a description of a method and never a description of a methodology. It is thus important to avoid using methodology as a synonym for method or body of methods.


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Research methodology is the process used to provide solutions to research problems in a systematic manner (Kumar, ). It is multidimensional and is the rationality behind the research methods chosen for the investigation.

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Basic Concepts of Research Methodology Research Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.

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INTRODUCTION 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The concept of the research What are the new challenges women face today, how they cope with them, what they need in. There are several important aspects to research methodology. This is a summary of the key concepts in scientific research and an attempt to erase some common misconceptions in science. This article is a .

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These questions will direct the research methodology; their inclusion in the Concept Paper links the research problem with the methodology. For some, composing the research questions may be the most difficult part of the research project, or possibly the most difficult aspect of writing the Concept . An overview of Research Methodology Research defines as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The term research refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem.