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What do you mean by the terms "research methods" and "research methodology"?

What are Research Methods?

❶If you want quantitative data, which consists of numerical data, then you might use a survey or online poll as your research method. Questionnaires Questionnaires often seem a logical and easy option as a way of collecting information from people.

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Research Methods and Research Methodology
What is Research Methodology?
Choosing qualitative or quantitative research methodologies

Think also of the method as a series of techniques, while the methodology is the strategy that determines the use of the techniques. The methods enable the methodology, and the methodology helps decide the best methods. To clarify further, consider this: A questionnaire is a method of data collection; it is a tool. Qualitative research methodology is the systematic processes and ways to obtain data with a variety of qualitative research tools.

Hence, a questionnaire is one of the tools, or methods, that is employed as part of a qualitative researcher's methodology. The term "research methods" refers to the different ways that you can collect data information for your research project. Research methods generally fall into one of two categories. If you want quantitative data, which consists of numerical data, then you might use a survey or online poll as your research method.

In contrast, if you want qualitative data, which offers more description, then choose an interview or focus group as your research method. When it comes to research methodology, you need to go a little deeper. This is your opportunity to reflect on your research methods.

If you used a survey, for example, think about the advantages and disadvantages of using this method. Similarly, think about why you collected quantitative data instead of qualitative data. After completing your research, you should also evaluate the method you used; this is part of your research methodology. A common error is to think that correlation implies a causal relationship. This is not necessarily true.

Generalization is to which extent the research and the conclusions of the research apply to the real world. It is not always so that good research will reflect the real world, since we can only measure a small portion of the population at a time. Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem, while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are.

A definition of reliability may be "Yielding the same or compatible results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials" the free dictionary.

Research methodology lacking reliability cannot be trusted. Replication studies are a way to test reliability. Both validity and reliability are important aspects of the research methodology to get better explanations of the world.

Logically, there are two types of errors when drawing conclusions in research:. Type 1 error is when we accept the research hypothesis when the null hypothesis is in fact correct.

Type 2 error is when we reject the research hypothesis even if the null hypothesis is wrong. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:.

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Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Share this page on your website: Key Concepts of the Scientific Method There are several important aspects to research methodology.

This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: And quantitative data, it must be remembered, are also collected in accordance with certain research vehicles and underlying research questions. Even the production of numbers is guided by the kinds of questions asked of the subjects, so is essentially subjective, although it appears less so than qualitative research data.

This is carried out when we wish to understand meanings, look at, describe and understand experience, ideas, beliefs and values, intangibles such as these. This is a common approach and helps you to 'triangulate' ie to back up one set of findings from one method of data collection underpinned by one methodology, with another very different method underpinned by another methodology - for example, you might give out a questionnaire normally quantitative to gather statistical data about responses, and then back this up and research in more depth by interviewing normally qualitative selected members of your questionnaire sample.

Look at the very brief outlines of different methods below. Consider which you intend using and whether you could also find it more useful to combine the quantitative with the qualitative. Interviews enable face to face discussion with human subjects. If you decide to interview you will need to draw up an interview schedule of questions which can be either closed or open questions, or a mixture of these.

Closed questions tend to be used for asking for and receiving answers about fixed facts such as name, numbers, and so on. They do not require speculation and they tend to produce short answers. With closed questions you could even give your interviewees a small selection of possible answers from which to choose. If you do this you will be able to manage the data and quantify the responses quite easily. The Household Survey and Census ask closed questions, and often market researchers who stop you in the street do too.

The problem with closed questions is that they limit the response the interviewee can give and do not enable them to think deeply or test their real feelings or values.

This would give you a very good idea of the variety of ideas and feelings people have, it would enable them to think and talk for longer and so show their feelings and views more fully.

But it is very difficult to quantify these results. You will find that you will need to read all the comments through and to categorise them after you have received them, or merely report them in their diversity and make general statements, or pick out particular comments if they seem to fit your purpose.

Qualitative research

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A research method is a systematic plan for doing research. In this lesson, we'll look at the definition for a research method and examine the four.

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Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings.

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The methodology section of a research paper answers two main questions: How was the data collected or generated? And, how was it analyzed? The writing should be direct and precise and always written in the past tense. Definition of research methodology: The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and.

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Research methods can be used alone to solve a problem, or explore a question as part of a piece of work. They can also be a key part of writing a thesis or dissertation. For more about this, see our section on Writing a Dissertation, and particularly Writing Your Methodology. Business research methods can be defined as “a systematic ad scientific procedure of data collection, compilation, analysis, interpretation, and implication pertaining to any business problem”[1]. Types of research methods can be classified into several categories according to the nature and.